2023 Ballot Measures


Initiatives, referenda, amendments, and propositions are on the ballot in several states and localities. 


Last updated:  9/14/2023


Disclaimer: The selected measures listed are not final and are subject to changes, additions, and eliminations. 

For additional information, please contact Meghan Holihan.

State Ballot Measures
State Election Date Title Summary Result
Oklahoma 3/7/2023 State Question 820 State Question 820 would legalize adult-use recreational marijuana in Oklahoma. Adults over the age of 21 years old would be able to purchase marijuana products for recreational use from licensed sellers. SQ 820 would allow individuals to possess up to 1 ounce of marijuana, 6 mature marijuana plants, and 6 seedling plants. The state question also creates a licensing process for recreational marijuana dispensaries, commercial growers, processors, and transporters, and it directs the state to create rules for the preparation and labeling of marijuana products within 90 days after becoming law. The state would impose a 15% excise tax on each sale, with surplus revenue going to student services, drug addiction treatment programs, courts, local government, and the state General Revenue Fund. Failed
Wisconsin 4/4/2023 Statewide Question 1 The amendment would redefine whether a court can place conditions upon a person’s release from jail prior to trial. Passed
Wisconsin 4/4/2023 Statewide Question 1 The amendment would allow a court to impose cash bail on a person accused of a violent crime based on the totality of the circumstances” including the person’s previous convictions and “the need to protect the community from serious harm.” Passed
Wisconsin 4/4/2023 Work Requirements for Welfare Benefits Advisory Question This question would advise legislators about whether voters want to require recipients of public benefits to show employment. Passed
Ohio 8/8/2023 60% of Voters Requirement for Constitutional Amendments This amendment would increase the threshold for constitutional amendment to 60% of voters and would require filed petitions to bear signatures of at least 5% of voters from each county. The amendment would also restrict petitions for constitutional amendments from attainting ten additional days for signatures if the initial petition was insufficient. Failed
Louisiana 10/14/2023 Constitutional Right to Worship in a Church or Place of Worship This amendment would amend the Louisiana Constitution to provide that "the freedom to worship in a church or other place of worship is a fundamental right that is worthy of the highest order of protection."
Louisiana 10/14/2023 Prohibit Property Tax Exemptions for Nonprofits Owning Damaged Residential Property This amendment would prevent a nonprofit from receiving a property tax exemption if the nonprofit owns residential property that is in such a state of disrepair that it is dangerous to the public's health or safety, as determined by the governing authority of the municipality or parish the property is located in.
Louisiana 10/14/2023 Amendment 1: Ban on Private or Foreign Funding of Election Costs This amendment would prohibit state and local governments from using funds, goods, or services donated by foreign governments or nongovernmental sources for the purpose of conducting elections unless allowed by the election code or general law.
New York 11/7/2023 Remove Debt Limit on Small City School Districts Amendment This amendment would remove the currentfive percent (of average full valuation of taxable real property) debtlimit imposed upon school districts wholly or partly located in citieswith less than 125,000 inhabitants (i.e., small city school districts).This proposal also clarifies language that small city debt limits shallexclude debt incurred for education purposes.
Texas 11/7/2023 Increase Mandatory Retirement Age of State Judges This amendment would increase the mandatory retirement age of state justices and judges from 75 to 79.
Texas 11/7/2023 Broadband Infrastructure Fund Creation This amendment would create a broadband infrastructure fund to expand high-speed broadband access and assist in the financing of connectivity projects.
Texas 11/7/2023 Water Fund Creation This amendment would create the Texas Water Fund, administered by the Texas Water Development Board, to finance water projects in the state.
Texas 11/7/2023 Energy Fund Creation This amendment would create the Texas Energy Fund, administered by the Public Utilities Commission, and authorize the state legislature to allocate funds for the modernization of electric generating facilities.
Texas 11/7/2023 Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Teacher Retirement System This amendment would authorize the state legislature to make cost-of-living adjustments to certain annuitants, as defined by law, of the Teacher Retirement System of Texas.
Colorado 11/7/2023 Property Tax Reduction and Revenue Cap Creation This amendment would reduce property taxes, allow the state government to retain and give revenues to local governments that it would normally return to taxpayers to compensate for reduced property tax revenue, limit the property tax revenue of local governments, and create a new cap on state revenue while allowing the state to retain revenue up to that cap.
Texas 11/7/2023 Proposition 12: Abolish Galveston County Treasurer This amendment would abolish the position of Galveston County treasurer and authorize the county to employ or contract a qualified person or designate another county officer to fulfill the function previously performed by the treasurer.
Texas 11/7/2023 Proposition 1: Right to Farming This amendment would establish a right to farming, ranching, timber production, horticulture, and wildlife management in the Texas Constitution.
Texas 11/7/2023 Proposition 10: Tax Exemption on Medical Equipment and Inventory This amendment would authorize the state legislature to provide for an ad valorem tax exemption on equipment and inventory manufactured by medical or biomedical companies.
Ohio 11/7/2023 Issue 2: Marijuana Legalization This amendment would legalize marijuana in Ohio, allowing the sale and purchase of marijuana, which a new Division of Cannabis Control would regulate; allowing persons who are at least 21 years old to use and possess marijuana, including up to 2.5 ounces of marijuana; and enacting a 10% tax on marijuana sales.
Texas 11/7/2023 Proposition 3: Prohibit Taxes on Wealth or Net Worth This amendment would prohibit the state legislature from imposing a wealth or net worth tax on individuals or families in the future.
Texas 11/7/2023 Proposition 2: Property Tax Exemption for Childcare Facilities This amendment would allow counties or municipalities to authorize a property tax exemption from ad valorem taxation on all or part of the appraised value of real property used to operate childcare facilities. The exemption may be adopted as a percentage of the appraised value of the real property.
Ohio 11/7/2023 Right to Make Reproductive Decisions This amendment would establish a state constitutional right to "make and carry out one’s own reproductive decisions," including decisions about abortion, contraception, fertility treatment, miscarriage care, and continuing pregnancy, and allow the state to restrict abortion after fetal viability, except when “necessary to protect the pregnant patient’s life or health.”
Maine 11/7/2023 Pine Tree Power Initiative This amendment would create the Pine Tree Power Company, a consumer-owned electric transmission and distribution utility governed by an elected board, and allow the company to purchase and acquire all investor-owned transmission and distribution utilities in Maine.
Colorado 11/7/2023 Proposition II: Tobacco and Nicotine Product Tax Revenue This amendment would allow the state to keep revenue that exceeds official projections from increased taxes on cigarettes, tobacco, and nicotine products, which voters approved as Proposition EE in 2020, and require the state to spend this revenue on preschool programs.
Maine 11/7/2023 Question 1: Voter Approval of Borrowing More Than $1 Billion This amendment would set a requirement for voter approval for quasi-independent state entities, municipal electric districts, electrification cooperatives, or consumer-owned transmission utilities to incur a total outstanding debt that exceeds $1 billion. Exemptions are provided for debt issued by the Maine Public Employees Retirement System, the Finance Authority of Maine, the Maine Health and Higher Education Facilities Authority, the Department of Transportation, the Maine Turnpike Authority, municipalities and counties and the Maine Municipal Bond Bank and for certain education-related programs.
Maine 11/7/2023 Question 2: Prohibit Foreign Spending in Elections This amendment would prohibit direct or indirect election spending by foreign governments, including entities with partial (5% or more equity stake) foreign government ownership or control, to influence the nomination or election of a candidate or the initiation or approval of a ballot measure. This amendment would require due diligence by any television or radio broadcasting station, provider of cable or satellite television, print news outlet and Internet platform to ensure it does not broadcast, distribute, or otherwise make available to the public a public communication for which a foreign government-influenced entity has made an expenditure, independent expenditure, electioneering communication, or disbursement in violation of this measure. A penalty of no more than $5,000 or double the amount of the violating disbursement may be assessed by the Commission on Governmental Ethics and Election Practices.
Maine 11/7/2023 "Right to Repair" Law This amendment would allow vehicle owners and independent repair facilities to gain access to vehicles’ on-board diagnostic systems. The access may not require authorization by the manufacturer, directly or indirectly, unless that authorization is standardized across all makes and models of motor vehicles sold in Maine. All parts, tools, software, and other components necessary to complete a full repair of a vehicle must be available to owners of vehicles and authorized independent repair shops. A motor vehicle owner or independent repair facility may seek civil action for denial of access and each denial of access is compensable by an award of treble damages or $10,000, whichever amount is greater.
Texas 11/7/2023 Proposition 14: Creation of the Centennial Parks Conservation Fund This amendment would create the Centennial Parks Conservation Fund, a trust fund for the creation and improvement of state parks.
Texas 11/7/2023 Proposition 4: Property Tax Changes and State Education Funding This amendment would increase the homestead tax exemption from $40,000 to $100,000; authorize the state legislature to limit the annual appraisal increase on non-homestead real property and expand the eligibility requirements for the exemption; exclude appropriations made to increase state education funding from the state appropriations limit; and authorize the state legislature to provide for four-year terms for members of the governing body of an appraisal entity in counties with a population of 75,000 or more.
Maine 11/7/2023 Question 6: Require Indian Treaty Obligations and Other Constitutional Provisions Included in Official Printing This amendment would require Sections 1, 2, and 5 of Article X, which pertains to Maine Indian Treaty Obligations, to be included in official printed copies of the Maine Constitution by repealing Article X, Section 7.
Maine 11/7/2023 Question 8: Allow Individuals Under Guardianship for Reasons of Mental Illness to Vote in Elections This amendment would allow individuals under a guardianship for reasons of mental illness to vote for governor, senators, and representatives and would exempt all electors from harassment or intimidation on the days of election during their attendance at, going, and returning from voting.
Maine 11/7/2023 Question 7: Remove Residency Requirement for Initiative Petition Circulators This amendment would remove the requirement that a circulator for a citizen initiative or referendum petition must be a citizen and registered voter of Maine.
Maine 11/7/2023 Question 5: Change Time Period of Judicial Review of Initiative Petitions This amendment would change the period for judicial review of the validity of written petitions from within 100 days from the date of filing to within 100 days from the deadline for filing of a written petition in the office of the Secretary of State.
Louisiana 11/18/2023 Legislative Veto Sessions Requirement The amendment would require the governor to act within 10 days after legislation is delivered while the legislature is in the session in which the bill was passed. Otherwise, the governor has 20 days to act if the legislative session in which a bill was passed has adjourned. If a bill is vetoed, it must be returned to the legislature with the veto message within 12 days after it was delivered to the governor. The governor can return a vetoed bill after the legislative session in which the bill passed has adjourned as provided for by state law. The amendment would require that a veto session shall convene on the 40th day following final adjournment of each session in which a bill was vetoed to consider bills vetoed during that session and that were not reconsidered by the house of origin during the session. The amendment would allow the legislature to consider bills vetoed by the governor without convening a separate veto session if the legislature was presently in a regular or extraordinary session.
Louisiana 11/18/2023 Amendment 3: Property Tax Exemptions for First Responders This amendment would authorize local governments to provide an additional property tax exemption of up to $2,500 for first responders including firefighters (including volunteers), emergency medical service personnel, emergency response dispatchers, police officers, and sheriffs. The taxing authority would be required to absorb any revenue loss.